Nebula http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/ Nebula Trifid Nebula http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=7658362 7658362 Swan Nebula The Omega Nebula contains glowing gas, dark dust, and some unusually massive stars. Also known as the M17 and the Swan Nebula, the Omega Nebula is about 5000 light-years away, 20 light-years across, and visible with binoculars in the constellation of Sagittarius. A recent epoch of star formation has created some very massive stars that haven't yet had time to self-destruct. Until then, these stars appear very bright and emit light so energetic it breaks up the surrounding gas and dust. (Description taken from APOD January 26, 1999) Celestron 9.25 SCT ST80 Guide scope QHY8 camera Atlas Mount Nebulosity 2.0, PHD guide Photoshop processing http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=10125587 10125587 Western Veil Nebula 8 x 5 min Exposure Celestron 9.25 SCT at f/7 ASGT mount Q453HR (QHY8) Camera Nebulosity PHD Guided http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=11617151 11617151 Western Veil Nebula Taken at Lake Shabonna ~35 x 300sec exposures 9.25 SCT @ f/6.3 ASGT Mount LPR Filter Q453-HR Camera ST80 guided using DSI Pro PHD/Nebulosity Deep Sky Stack http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=12179869 12179869 Pac Man Pac Man Nebula 28 x 300 Sec subs Celestron 9.25 SCT with 6.6 focal reducer Atlas mount using EQMOD Q453HR Camera Light Pollution Filter Guided with a 80ST/DSI using PHD Images acquired using Nebulosity Stacked with Deep Sky Stacker Processed with Nebulosity http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=14694843 14694843 Hearshead Nebula Taken by Ed Bianchina Processed by Brent http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=15941467 15941467 Lagoon Nebula, Trifid nebula and M21 Cluster The lagoon Nebula is the bright object in the lower right part of the photo. Located some 5,700 light years from earth in the constellation Sagittarius. It is formed from hydrogen gas that is excited by two stars and glows deep red. A little lower and left of the brightest part of the gas is a loose cluster of stars (NGC 6530) that is not actually part of the gas cloud. In the upper left hand portion of the image are two objects. The first is the Trifid Nebula. This nebula is interesting because it actually is composed of four different astronomical objects. The first is a red "Emission Nebula" cause by excited hydrogen gas. The second is a "Reflection Nebula" which is the result of light bouncing off of gas and dust particles resulting in the blue you see. The third is called a "Dark Nebula" which is gas and dust that blocks light from passing through it. The forth and final object is an "Open Cluster". These clusters are loose associations of stars that form about the same time from clumps of gas. They eventually go their separate ways but while they are young they remain close to each other. The final object in this picture is another open cluster located directly left of the Trifid Nebula. The cluster, know as M21, is composed of about 100 stars. To give a sense of the image scale, the Lagoon nebula is about the size of the full moon. http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=40784245 40784245 http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=8270341 8270341 Swan Nebula The Omega Nebula contains glowing gas, dark dust, and some unusually massive stars. Also known as the M17 and the Swan Nebula, the Omega Nebula is about 5000 light-years away, 20 light-years across, and visible with binoculars in the constellation of Sagittarius. A recent epoch of star formation has created some very massive stars that haven't yet had time to self-destruct. Until then, these stars appear very bright and emit light so energetic it breaks up the surrounding gas and dust. (Description taken from APOD January 26, 1999) Celestron 9.25 SCT ST80 Guide scope QHY8 camera Atlas Mount Nebulosity 2.0, PHD guide Photoshop processing http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=10102721 10102721 http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=17853910 17853910 Crescent Nebula The Crescent Nebula (NGC 6888 or Caldwell 27) is an emission nebula in the Cygnus constellation, about 5000 light years away. It is formed by the fast stellar wind from the Wolf-Rayet star WR 136 (HD 192163) colliding with and energizing the slower moving wind ejected by the star when it became a red giant around 400,000 years ago. The result of the collision is a shell and two shock waves, one moving outward and one moving inward. The inward moving shock wave heats the stellar wind to X-ray emitting temperatures. (taken from Wikipedia) Taken with Megrez 90 at f/5.5 Atlas mount QHY8 Camera w/ LPS filter Nebulosity Capture software PHD Guiding DeepSkyStacker PhotoShop Processing http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=43652208 43652208 Swan Nebula Wide Field The Omega Nebula contains glowing gas, dark dust, and some unusually massive stars. Also known as the M17 and the Swan Nebula, the Omega Nebula is about 5000 light-years away, 20 light-years across, and visible with binoculars in the constellation of Sagittarius. A recent epoch of star formation has created some very massive stars that haven't yet had time to self-destruct. Until then, these stars appear very bright and emit light so energetic it breaks up the surrounding gas and dust. (Description taken from APOD January 26, 1999) Megrez 90 Telescope ST80 Guide scope QHY8 camera Atlas Mount Nebulosity 2.0, PHD guide Photoshop processing http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=38852384 38852384 Veil Nebula Veil Nebula taken with my Megrez From Wikipedia, The Veil Nebula, is part of the Cygnus Loop, Parts of the loop include the 'Eastern Veil', the 'Western Veil' or 'Witch's Broom Nebula', and Pickering's Triangular Wisp. It is a large, relatively faint supernova remnant in the constellation Cygnus. The source supernova exploded some 5,000 to 8,000 years ago, and the remnants have since expanded to cover an area of ~3x3 degrees; about 6 times the diameter or 36 times the area of a full moon. The distance to the nebula is not precisely known, with estimates ranging from 1,400 to 2,600 light-years. It was discovered on 1784 September 5 by William Herschel. He described the western end of the nebula as "Extended; passes thro' 52 Cygni... near 2 degree in length." and described the eastern end as "Branching nebulosity... The following part divides into several streams uniting again towards the south." The Hubble Space Telescope captured images of the nebula. The analysis of the emissions from the nebula indicate the presence of oxygen, sulfur, and hydrogen. When finely resolved, some parts of the image appear to be rope like filaments. The standard explanation is that the shock waves are so thin, less than one part in 50,000 of the radius[1], that the shell is only visible when viewed exactly edge-on, giving the shell the appearance of a filament. Undulations in the surface of the shell lead to multiple filamentary images, which appear to be intertwined. The nebula is notorious among astronomers for being difficult to see visually, even though it has a bright integrated magnitude of 7. However, a telescope using an OIII filter (a filter isolating the wavelength of light from doubly ionized oxygen), will allow an observer to see the nebula clearly, as almost all light from this nebula is emitted at this wavelength. Using an 8-inch (200 mm) telescope equipped with an OIII filter, one could easily see the delicate lacework apparent in photographs. With an OIII filter, almost any telescope could conceivably see this nebula, and some argue that it can be seen without any optical aid, excepting an OIII filter held up to the eye. This is also one of the largest, brightest features in the x-ray sky. The brighter segments of the nebula are listed in the New General Catalog under the designations NGC 6960, 6979, 6992, and 6995. The easiest segment to find is 6960, which runs through the naked eye star 52 Cygni. NGC 6979 - the central portion of the Veil Complex is Pickering's Wedge, or Pickering's Triangular Wisp. This segment of nebulosity was discovered photographically by Williamina Fleming, but credit went to her supervisor Edward Pickering, as was the custom of the day, thus named after Pickering as a result. http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=50164224 50164224 NGC 6960 - Witch's Broom Nebula with processing pushed to limit The Witches Broom Nebula is the western part of the large Veil nebula complex. It is the remnants of a star the exploded ten thousand years ago in the constellation of Cygnus. The colors you see are the result of two processes of stars interaction with the gas left over from the explosion. The Blue light happens when light from a nearby star reflects off the gas like a mirror. The red light happens when light is absorbed by hydrogen gas and then re-emitted. This nebula shows both kinds and is a great example of both. 30 x 500 sec exposures 9.25 SCT @ f/6.3 ASGT Mount Q453-HR Camera ST80 guided using DSI Pro PHD/Nebulosity Deep Sky Stack http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=11743589 11743589 Close up of the Veil Taken with the Celestron 9.25 SCT at f/6.3 http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=50700193 50700193 NGC 6960 - Witch's Broom Nebula taken at dark site The Witches Broom Nebula is the western part of the large Veil nebula complex. It is the remnants of a star the exploded ten thousand years ago in the constellation of Cygnus. The colors you see are the result of two processes of stars interaction with the gas left over from the explosion. The Blue light happens when light from a nearby star reflects off the gas like a mirror. The red light happens when light is absorbed by hydrogen gas and then re-emitted. This nebula shows both kinds and is a great example of both. This photo was taken at a dark site in central Illinois. 30 x 500 sec exposures ~30 x 300 sec 9.25 SCT @ f/6.3 ASGT Mount LPR Filter Q453-HR Camera ST80 guided using DSI Pro PHD/Nebulosity Deep Sky Stack http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=12179574 12179574 Cocoon Nebula IC 5146, also Caldwell 19, and the Sh 2-125, Cocoon Nebula, is a reflection[1]/emission[2] nebula and Caldwell object in the constellation Cygnus. IC 5146 is a star cluster and the nebula is Sh2-125. [3] It shines at magnitude +10.0[4]/+9.3[2]/+7.2.[5] Its celestial coordinates are RA 21h 53.5m, dec+47?? 16??. It is located near the naked-eye star Pi Cygni, the open cluster NGC 7209 in Lacerta, and the bright open cluster M39.[4][1] The cluster is about 4,000 ly away, and the central star that lights it formed about 100,000 years ago[6]; the nebula is about 12 arcmins across, which is equavalent to a span of 15 light years.[5] When viewing IC 5146, dark nebula Barnard 168 (B168) is an inseparable part of the experience, forming a dark lane that surrounds the cluster and projects westward forming the appearance of a trail behind the Cocoon. http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=51231737 51231737 Cocoon Closeup IC 5146, also Caldwell 19, and the Sh 2-125, Cocoon Nebula, is a reflection[1]/emission[2] nebula and Caldwell object in the constellation Cygnus. IC 5146 is a star cluster and the nebula is Sh2-125. [3] It shines at magnitude +10.0[4]/+9.3[2]/+7.2.[5] Its celestial coordinates are RA 21h 53.5m, dec+47?? 16??. It is located near the naked-eye star Pi Cygni, the open cluster NGC 7209 in Lacerta, and the bright open cluster M39.[4][1] The cluster is about 4,000 ly away, and the central star that lights it formed about 100,000 years ago[6]; the nebula is about 12 arcmins across, which is equavalent to a span of 15 light years.[5] When viewing IC 5146, dark nebula Barnard 168 (B168) is an inseparable part of the experience, forming a dark lane that surrounds the cluster and projects westward forming the appearance of a trail behind the Cocoon. http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=51232269 51232269 http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=52196339 52196339 The Pleiades In astronomy, the Pleiades, or seven sisters, (Messier object 45) are an open star cluster in the constellation of Taurus. It is among the nearest star clusters to Earth and is the cluster most obvious to the naked eye in the night sky. Pleiades has several meanings in different cultures and traditions. The cluster is dominated by hot blue stars that have formed within the last 100 million years. Dust that forms a faint reflection nebulosity around the brightest stars was thought at first to be left over from the formation of the cluster (hence the alternate name Maia Nebula after the star Maia), but is now known to be an unrelated dust cloud in the interstellar medium that the stars are currently passing through. Astronomers estimate that the cluster will survive for about another 250 million years, after which it will disperse due to gravitational interactions with its galactic neighborhood. http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=52854365 52854365 The California Nebula The California Nebula (NGC 1499) is an emission nebula located in the constellation Perseus. It is so named because it appears to resemble the outline of the US State of California on long exposure photographs. It is almost 2.5° long on the sky and, because of its very low surface brightness, it is extremely difficult to observe visually. It can be observed with a H-Beta filter (isolates the H-Beta line at 486 nm) in a rich-field telescope under dark skies. It lies at a distance of about 1,000 light years from Earth. The California Nebula was discovered by E. E. Barnard in 1884. (taken from Wikipedia) http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=56298108 56298108 The Great Orion Nebula The description is below but this object is more than the can be described. This is a one of the few deep sky objects that can be seen with the naked eye. The nebula is located on Orion's sword and can be seen as a fuzzy star. If you have a pair of binoculars you can see a large portion of the cloud. This is the first shot of the year and it will improve as the season progresses. The Orion Nebula (also known as Messier 42, M42, or NGC 1976) is a diffuse nebula situated south[b] of Orion's Belt. It is one of the brightest nebulae, and is visible to the naked eye in the night sky. M42 is located at a distance of 1,344±20 light years and is the closest region of massive star formation to Earth. The M42 nebula is estimated to be 24 light years across. Older texts frequently referred to the Orion Nebula as the Great Nebula in Orion or the Great Orion Nebula. The Orion Nebula is one of the most scrutinized and photographed objects in the night sky, and is among the most intensely studied celestial features. The nebula has revealed much about the process of how stars and planetary systems are formed from collapsing clouds of gas and dust. Astronomers have directly observed protoplanetary disks, brown dwarfs, intense and turbulent motions of the gas, and the photo-ionizing effects of massive nearby stars in the nebula. There are also supersonic "bullets" of gas piercing the dense hydrogen clouds of the Orion Nebula. Each bullet is ten times the diameter of Pluto's orbit and tipped with iron atoms glowing bright blue. They were probably formed one thousand years ago from an unknown violent event. (taken from Wikipedia) For the full article http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orion_Nebula http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=56926444 56926444 The Heart Nebula The Heart Nebula, IC 1805, lies some 7500 light years away from Earth and is located in the Perseus arm of the Galaxy in the constellation Cassiopeia. This is an emission nebula showing glowing gas and darker dust lanes. The nebula is formed by plasma of ionized hydrogen and free electrons. The very brightest part of this nebula (the knot at the right) is separately classified as NGC 896, because it was the first part of this nebula to be discovered. The nebula's intense red output and its configuration are driven by the radiation emanating from a small group of stars near the nebula's center. This open cluster of stars known as Melotte 15 contains a few bright stars nearly 50 times the mass of our Sun, and many more dim stars that are only a fraction of our Sun's mass. The cluster used to contain a microquasar that was expelled millions of years ago. (taken from Wikipedia) http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=56297861 56297861 The Heart of the Heart Nebula The Heart Nebula, IC 1805, lies some 7500 light years away from Earth and is located in the Perseus arm of the Galaxy in the constellation Cassiopeia. This is an emission nebula showing glowing gas and darker dust lanes. The nebula is formed by plasma of ionized hydrogen and free electrons. The very brightest part of this nebula (the knot at the right) is separately classified as NGC 896, because it was the first part of this nebula to be discovered. The nebula's intense red output and its configuration are driven by the radiation emanating from a small group of stars near the nebula's center. This open cluster of stars known as Melotte 15 contains a few bright stars nearly 50 times the mass of our Sun, and many more dim stars that are only a fraction of our Sun's mass. The cluster used to contain a microquasar that was expelled millions of years ago. (taken from Wikipedia) http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=97432898 97432898 The Horsehead Nebula The Horsehead Nebula (also known as Barnard 33 in bright nebula IC 434) is a dark nebula in the constellation Orion. The nebula is located just below Alnitak, the star farthest left on Orion's Belt, and is part of the much larger Orion Molecular Cloud Complex. It is approximately 1500 light years from Earth. It is one of the most identifiable nebulae because of the shape of its swirling cloud of dark dust and gases, which is similar to that of a horse's head. The shape was first noticed in 1888 by Williamina Fleming on photographic plate B2312 taken at the Harvard College Observatory. The red glow originates from hydrogen gas predominantly behind the nebula, ionized by the nearby bright star Sigma Orionis. The darkness of the Horsehead is caused mostly by thick dust, although the lower part of the Horsehead's neck casts a shadow to the left. Streams of gas leaving the nebula are funneled by a strong magnetic field. Bright spots in the Horsehead Nebula's base are young stars just in the process of forming. Next to the Horsehead is the Flame Nebula. The Flame Nebula, designated as NGC 2024 (and Sh2-277) is a emission nebula in the Constellation Orion. It is about 900 to 1,500 light-years away. The bright star Alnitak (ζ Ori), the easternmost star in the Belt of Orion, shines energetic ultraviolet light into the Flame and this knocks electrons away from the great clouds of hydrogen gas that reside there. Much of the glow results when the electrons and ionized hydrogen recombine. Additional dark gas and dust lies in front of the bright part of the nebula and this is what causes the dark network that appears in the center of the glowing gas. (taken from Wikipedia) http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=57737595 57737595 Rosetta Nebula The Rosette Nebula is a large, circular H II region located near one end of a giant molecular cloud in the Monoceros region of the Milky Way Galaxy. The open cluster NGC 2244 is closely associated with the nebulosity, the stars of the cluster having been formed from the nebula's matter. The cluster and nebula lie at a distance of some 5,200 light years from Earth (although estimates of the distance vary considerably) and measure roughly 130 light years in diameter. The radiation from the young stars excite the atoms in the nebula, causing them to emit radiation themselves producing the emission nebula we see. The mass of the nebula is estimated to be around 10,000 solar masses. (taken from Wikipedia) Photographed using a Megrez 90 refractor Atlas Mount QHY8 camera using Nebulosity Guided with an ST80/DSI with PHD Processed with Deep Sky Stacker and Photoshop CS4 http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=63101411 63101411 The Cone Nebula The Cone Nebula is an H II region in the constellation of Monoceros. It was discovered by William Herschel on December 26, 1785, at which time he designated it H V.27. The nebula is located about 800 parsecs or 2,600 light-years away from Earth. The Cone Nebula forms part of the nebulosity surrounding the Christmas Tree Cluster. The designation of NGC 2264 in the New General Catalogue refers to both objects and not the nebula alone. The diffuse Cone Nebula, so named because of its apparent shape, lies in the southern part of NGC 2264, the northern part being the magnitude-3.9 Christmas Tree Cluster. It is in the northern part of Monoceros, just north of the midpoint of a line from Procyon to Betelgeuse. The cone's shape comes from a dark absorption nebula consisting of cold molecular hydrogen and dust in front of a faint emission nebula containing hydrogen ionized by S Monocerotis, the brightest star of NGC 2264. The faint nebula is approximately seven light-years long (with an apparent length of 10 arcminutes), and is 2,700 light-years away from Earth. The nebula is part of a much larger star-forming complex?the Hubble Space Telescope was used to capture images of forming stars in 1997. (taken from Wikipedia) http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=58645185 58645185 Iris Nebula - NGC 7023 The Iris Nebula, also NGC 7023 and Caldwell 4, is a bright reflection nebula and Caldwell object in the constellation Cepheus. It shines at magnitude +6.8. It lies 1,300 light-years away and is six light-years across. (taken from Wikipedia) http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=81972500 81972500 The Eagle Nebula - Wide Field - 2010 The Eagle Nebula (cataloged as Messier 16 or M16, and as NGC 6611) is a young open cluster of stars in the constellation Serpens, discovered by Jean-Philippe de Cheseaux in 1745-46. Its name derives from its shape which is resemblant of an eagle. It is the subject of a famous photograph by the Hubble Space Telescope, which shows pillars of star-forming gas and dust within the nebula. (taken from Wikipedia) http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=82844673 82844673 The Eagle Nebula - Close up - 2010 The Eagle Nebula (cataloged as Messier 16 or M16, and as NGC 6611) is a young open cluster of stars in the constellation Serpens, discovered by Jean-Philippe de Cheseaux in 1745-46. Its name derives from its shape which is resemblant of an eagle. It is the subject of a famous photograph by the Hubble Space Telescope, which shows pillars of star-forming gas and dust within the nebula. (taken from Wikipedia) http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=82845973 82845973 The Eagle Nebula - Close up - 2010 The Eagle Nebula (cataloged as Messier 16 or M16, and as NGC 6611) is a young open cluster of stars in the constellation Serpens, discovered by Jean-Philippe de Cheseaux in 1745-46. Its name derives from its shape which is resemblant of an eagle. It is the subject of a famous photograph by the Hubble Space Telescope, which shows pillars of star-forming gas and dust within the nebula. (taken from Wikipedia) http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=83513521 83513521 Veil Nebula This is a wide field mosaic of three images stitched together. http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=91523734 91523734 Bubble Nebula NGC 7635, also called the Bubble Nebula and Sharpless 162, is a H II region emission nebula in the constellation Cassiopeia. It lies close to the direction of the open cluster Messier 52. The "bubble" is created by the stellar wind from a massive hot, 8.7 magnitude young central star, the 15 5 M☉ SAO 20575 (BD+60 2522). The nebula is near a giant molecular cloud which contains the expansion of the bubble nebula while itself being excited by the hot central star, causing it to glow. It was discovered in 1787 by Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel. The star SAO 20575 or BD+602522 is thought to have a mass of 10-40 Solar masses. Technical info: Clestron 9.25 SCT at f/6.3, QHY8, Celstron LPS filter, Guiding with OAG/DSI, Nebulosity, PHD, DSS, Photoshop, 15 x 5 min http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=98122451 98122451 http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=103024986 103024986 The Soul Nebula The Soul Nebula (a.k.a. the Embryo Nebula, IC 1848). It is an open cluster of stars surrounded by a cloud of dust and gas over 150 light-years across and located about 6,500 light-years from Earth., near the Heart Nebula. The cluster of stars formed about a million years ago from the material of the nebula. Winds and ultraviolet light from these young stars are excavating a cavity in the cloud. Parts of the cloud that are more dense than their surroundings are being eroded more slowly and form giant towers, or pillars of dust and gas, which all point toward the central star cluster. Material at the interior edges of the cavity is also being compressed by the winds and radiation from the star cluster. This triggers new star formation in those areas. The pillars inside the Soul Nebula are each about 10 light-years tall and have stars forming at their tips. This was taken using my Megrez 90 and QHY8 Camera. http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=103024987 103024987 Bubble Nebula and friends This image includes the Bubble Nebula (I have a close up image posted), the star cluster Messier 52 and small nebula NGC7538. The Bubble Nebula is very famous as is the Messier object, The other nebula on the right is NGC7538 and little is known about it. I took this with the Megrez 90 and my QHY8. http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=103024988 103024988 The Crab Nebula The Crab Nebula (catalogue designations M1, NGC 1952, Taurus A) is a supernova remnant and pulsar wind nebula in the constellation of Taurus. The nebula was observed by John Bevis in 1731; it corresponds to a bright supernova recorded by Chinese and Arab astronomers in 1054. Located at a distance of about 6,500 light-years from Earth, the nebula has a diameter of 11 ly and expands at a rate of about 1,500 kilometers per second. At the center of the nebula lies the Crab Pulsar, a neutron star (or spinning ball of neutrons), twelve miles across,[5] which emits pulses of radiation from gamma rays to radio waves with a spin rate of 30.2 times per second. The nebula was the first astronomical object identified with a historical supernova explosion. The nebula acts as a source of radiation for studying celestial bodies that occult it. In the 1950s and 1960s, the Sun's corona was mapped from observations of the Crab's radio waves passing through it, and in 2003, the thickness of the atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan was measured as it blocked out X-rays from the nebula. The cloudy remnants of SN 1054 are now known as the Crab Nebula. The nebula is also referred to as Messier 1 or M1, being the first Messier Object catalogued in 1758. (taken in part from Wikipedia) Image captured with the 9.25 SCT and QHY8. http://www.edbianchina.com/apps/photos/photo?photoID=103024989 103024989